The where of freedom

Freedom, wherever it existed as a tangible reality, has always been spatially limited. This is especially clear for the greatest and most elementary of all negative liberties, the freedom of movement; the borders of national territory or the walls of … Continue reading

A bridge between the imagined and the real

In poetry and fiction the controlling context is imagistic and metaphoric, and when we attempt to translate its meaning into everyday, practical language we all to often flatten the intricate, multidimensional structure of image, thought, and feeling; by reducing literary … Continue reading

Putting planning back together with politics

Most of these achievements [in early town planning], even the most purely technical, had their roots firmly planted in matters of ideology, which in turn corresponded largely with the beginnings of modern socialism, so much so that the history of … Continue reading

Every dooryard a park

From Sylvester Baxter’s 1893 report on Boston’s metropolitan parks—five years before the first publication of Ebenezer Howard’s “garden cities” book. An ideal urban community would combine the advantages of both town and country, and there is an unmistakable tendency to-day … Continue reading

The power and purse of the whole metropolis

To have any effectiveness, uniform standards for what the community is providing would need to be set and enforced in urban communities, including both the rich and the poor residential districts in a metropolitan area. In the present situation, however, … Continue reading